As many language learners know, flashcards and spaced-repetition software (SRS) are wonderful tools for learning new vocabulary. I’ve used two different programs – Anki and Pleco (see my full review of Pleco here). Here are some basic differences between the two:
A common question people have when learning Chinese is, what words should I learn? In this post I’ll canvass some of the places where you might pick up new words:
- Pre-made lists – often these lists will contain, for example, the 500 most common Chinese characters, or the HSK Vocabulary List for your desired level, or a well-known textbook’s vocabulary list. An advantage is that these lists are pre-made and can easily be downloaded into your flashcard program, and you’re unlikely to learn “useless” uncommon words. Claims that you can read 90% of a text by knowing only 1,000 characters are often thrown around, but I find those claims to be wildly misleading. It’s also a decent approach if you’re studying towards the HSK. But the major drawback to this approach is that you don’t learn words in context: the words are harder to learn because you’re mostly relying on rote memorisation, and it is all too often the case that you might be able to regurgitate the English definition for the word without actually knowing how to use it in a sentence!
So while I’m learning Chinese, my Chinese friend Julie’s learning English, and we frequently complain about how difficult and frustrating each others’ languages are. Her English is much better than mine (she’s studied for longer and is more hardworking than I am), at least in that her vocabulary is quite good. On the other hand, I think my Chinese grammar is better than her English grammar.
Of course, one of the most difficult things about Chinese is the characters. When I learn a new word, I have to learn three items: what the characters look like, how the word should be pronounced, and what the word means. Different characters may have different meanings and even pronunciation sometimes, depending on the context (for example, the “着” in “着急” is pronounced differently compared to when it just follows a verb).
I understand now why people say that learning more languages is easier after you’ve become fluent in two. Part of it is because you have two possible languages to which you can make connections (e.g. for mnemonic devices, etc – this strength is far more applicable when your second language is something like French and your third target language is something like Spanish, because there are so many similarities between those languages), and part of it is because you’ll understand your native language better (not only things like nouns, adverbs, auxiliary words, sentence structures, etc. but also how one word like “efficiency” might actually be so flexibly applied in your native language that it does not have an equivalent in another language).
But also, part of it is because you spend an awful lot of time learning how to learn in the process – you learn which techniques and resources work for you, and which ones don’t. This is especially the case when you’re learning a language through self-study (and unless you’re taking intensive and comprehensive language courses, you probably will be – or should be – doing some degree of self-study).
For the past few months, I’ve been using a new, very good app: Du Chinese. The “Du” in the app name is 读 (i.e. “read”). Hence, it is an app that focuses on reading Chinese. Du Chinese has short article snippets in Mandarin accompanied by an audio file where a native speaker reads the snippet aloud, and the words are highlighted as she reads them.